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Neither does the classification meet the demands of criticism [3] two large groups, contemporary documents and subsequent documents, since it does not express anything about the value of the document. The safest criterion is the one indicated by Hippolyte Delehaye , [4] which is based on the degree of sincerity and historicity offered by the literary genre of the document. If the elements that distinguish the six groups are considered, it is possible to verify that the first and the second refer to a uniform type of texts because of the contemporary and direct nature of the information; the next two contain stories, based in varying degrees, on at least partially secure data; the last two, on the other hand, are true fantasies without a historical basis.

Maintaining the same criteria as Delehaye, the texts can be classified into three simpler groups:. Except for the records, all of the narrative documents mentioned above offer, from a literary point of view, common characters, since they are all the result of an elaboration and compositional process typical of hagiographic literature; the tendency to the schematic form has a remote origin, whose trace already manifested in ancient texts, close to the type and narrative sincerity, of the same record.

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This has happened, for example, in the Martyrium Polycarpi , in which it is possible to recognize the attempt of the hagiographer to assimilate the death of the martyr to that of Christ. In the first place the legal tone of the Roman criminal process of the first records has been preserved; sometimes even some of the passions make reference to it, showing how, on more than one occasion, the lost records served as sources. The introductory formula of the consular date of the records preserve the indication of the emperor , governor or proconsul, even in historically erroneous cases.

The phases of the procedure, arrest, appearance, interrogation, torture , judgment and torment are preserve and constitute the structure of the narrative; likewise, the protagonists, usually few in number, of the ancient records are preserved: the martyr, the judge or magistrate and the executioner ; in the second place, the Christian spectators who animate their companion and, finally, the hostile mass of the pagans. On a similar scheme, the evolutionary process of the passions develops throughout the centuries IV to XX , with successive enrichments and formal improvements, including fantasies, common places and errors, due to both ignorance and blind piety of the hagiographers.

These unsubstantiated relationships can be broken down like this:. The same happened with the narrations of the pains and tortures, prolonged and multiplied without saving prodigies made by the martyr, adorned with the spectacular element provided by fantasy and legend.

The stereotype-smashing scream | Martyrium

In this transformation and development, negative from the critical point of view, several factors influenced to a considerable degree: the spread of the cult of the relics , with the inevitable abuses easily imaginable; veneration of the martyred saint, patron saint of the city, monastery or church, which obliged him to find or invent a living; the particularly religious and devout environment of the Middle Ages , favored by the monks who were among the most active writers of the hagiographic texts. Dispensing from the first records collected, incomplete and that are already considered lost, it can be said that the first compiler was Eusebius of Cesarea , of whom the title of the writing of martyribus is known note10 which unfortunately has been lost; On the other hand, Martyribus Palestinae is preserved.

Gregory the Great , as the Pope himself informed the bishop and patriarch of Alexandria , Eulogio, who had requested documentation about the collections of gesta martyrum. This fact is important, because the compilation of many of the passions is intimately related to this martyrology, which served as a starting point. Later, parallel to the disclosure of the narratives of the gesta martyrum, there was the need to synthesize them in succinct stories, including them in the most known martyrologies at that time; those composed by Saint Bede the Venerable in the eighth century and Florus of Lyon , Atto and Usuard in the ninth century.

Because of such information, these medieval martyrologies were called historical martyrologies. Something similar happened in the Eastern Church , where the numerous passions were collected in abbreviated form in the liturgical books, for example in the saints menaea , in which was introduced for each day of the 12 months of the year an appointment about the life and martyrdom of the saint.

"Märtyrium" in English

The same happened with the menologies menology , also divided into 12 volumes, corresponding to the 12 months of the year; in them the passions are synthesized in a more extensive way than in the preceding ones. The work has rendered a valuable service to the hagiography by saving various texts subsequently lost. The most arduous problem concerning the Acta martyrum is to determine its authenticity, the historical value that at least in part contain and often hide the numerous texts, whose analysis is far from being concluded.

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The first attempt to determine the authentic records is owed to the Benedictine Thierry Ruinart , who collected and published texts that he considered genuine. It is true that in most cases they are historical figures, but the selection of the texts was not carried out under a uniform or safe criterion, nor was it accompanied by a critical analysis. The Benedictine, who had a rather vague idea of the purpose of its collection, only intended to make known the oldest and most trustworthy document for each of the martyrs, with the intention of excluding falsified documents.

In Edmond-Frederic Le Blant had the idea to continue and complete the compilation of Ruinart and added another group of records, which he considered authentic by the adequacy of the narrative with the Roman legal phrases. With much greater seriousness, although very slowly, they are occupied with these works according to an organic plan by the Bollandists.

In recent years, a series of principles and norms of hagiographic criticism have been exposed in relation to the records by several specialists, such as, H.

Achelis, J. Geffken, A. Harnack , in Germany; P. Allard, J. Leclercq, in France ; the Jesuit F.

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Grossi-Gondi, Fr. Lanzoni and Pio Franchi de 'Cavalieri, in Italy. The most valuable contribution, however, is due to the bolandist H. Delehaye, from whose writings it would be possible to extract a critical summula. Ihe contributed, in effect, the safest classification of the records; He has pointed out the various components of a martyr's dossier, has reconstructed the iter of the legend, underlining the special function of the massa and local traditions; He has studied hagiographic documents parallel to the narrative texts, such as martyrologies and synaxes, and has established the different value of literary, liturgical and monumental sources, specifically establishing that of chronological and topographical data doctrine of hagiographic coordinates.

In summary, he has outlined and perfected the discipline of the method. It has been said, with a certain air of reproach, that the hagiographic criticism has been interested until the present, almost exclusively in the problems related to the authenticity and chronology of the document, neglecting the social aspect and the environment in which it was written; aspect that in turn helps determine the same chronology.

It has been insisted, therefore, on the need to "identify the cultural and religious concepts expressed in the document and establish a reference to the social environment where the text comes from and to which it is addressed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Spanish. December Click [show] for important translation instructions.