Do people turn to religion in times of stress? J Nerv Mental Dis. Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press; Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: points of commonality, points of departure.
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J Theory Soc Behav. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Religious involvement and sociodemographic factors: a Brazilian national survey. Underwood LG, Teresi J. The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: development, theoretical, description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and preliminary construct validity using health related data. Ann Behav Med.
Underwood LG. Ordinary spiritual experience: qualitative research, interpretive guidelines, and population distribution for the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Arch Psychol Relig. The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: overview and results. Ellison CG, Fan D. Daily spiritual experiences and psychological well-being among US adults. Soc Indic Res. View details. Flag as inappropriate. Visit website. See more.
Portuguese English Translator. Translate from Portuguese to English and from English to Portuguese. Portuguese - English Translato. With this translator you can easily translate from Portuguese to English. Portuguese - English. Much more than a dictionary. Dictionary, translator, training apps and more In the "New Arcadia" came into being and had in Bocage a man who, under other conditions, might have been a great poet. His talent led him to react against the general mediocrity and though he achieved no sustained flights, his sonnets vie with those of Camoens.
This turbulent priest constituted himself a literary dictator and in "Os Burros" surpassed all other bards in invective, moreover he sought to supplant the Lusiads by a tasteless epic, "Oriente".
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He, however, introduced the didactic poem, his odes reach a high level, and his letters and political pamphlets display learning and versatility, but his influence on letters was hurtful. The first versified in a philosophic and tender strain, the second sketched the custom and follies of the time in quintilhas of abundant wit and realism, the third spent a long life of exile in Paris in reviving the cult of the sixteenth-century poets, purified the language of Gallicisms and enriched it by numerous works, original and translated.
Though lacking imagination, his contos, or scenes of Portuguese life, strike a new note of reality, and his blank verse translation of the "Martyrs" of Chateaubriand is a high performance.
Shortly before his death he became a convert to the Romantic Movement, for whose triumph in the person of Almeida Garrett he had prepared the way. During the eighteenth century the colony of Brazil began to contribute to Portuguese letters. It is written in blank verse and has some notable episodes. The passages descriptive of native customs are well written and these poems are superior to anything of the kind produced contemporaneously by the mother country. Though a Court returned to Lisbon in , it preferred, for one hundred and fifty years, Italian opera and French plays to vernacular representations.
Early in the eighteenth century several authors sprung from the people vainly attempted to found a national drama.
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Their pieces mostly belong to low comedy. The latter divided his attention between heroic comedies and comedies de capa y espada and, though wanting in ideas and taste, they enjoyed a long popularity. At the same time the Arcadia endeavoured to raise the standard of the stage, drawing inspiration from the contemporary French drama, but its members lacked dramatic talent and achieved little. The early nineteenth century witnessed a literary reformation which was begun by Almeida Garrett who had become acquainted with the English and French Romanticism in exile and based his work on the national traditions.
The poetry of the austere Alexandre Herculano has a religious or patriotic motive and is reminiscent of Lamennais. Jayme", is sincere, but belongs to the same school which thought too much of form and melody. A fierce pamphlet war heralded the downfall of Castilho and poetry gained in breadth and reality, though in many instances it became non-Christian and revolutionary. Guerra Junqueiro is mainly ironic in the "Morte de D.
Gomes Leal is merely anti-Christian with touches of Baudelaire. The reaction against the use of verse for the propaganda of radicalism in religion and politics has succeeded and the most considered poets of the early twentieth century, Correia de Oliveira , and Lopes Vieira , were natural singers with no extraneous purpose to serve.
After producing some classical tragedies, the best of which is "Cato", Almeida Garrett undertook the reform of the stage on independent lines, though he learnt something from the Anglo-German school. Anxious to find a national drama, he chose subjects from Portuguese history and, beginning with "An Auto of Gil Vicente", produced a series of prose plays which culminated in " Brother Luiz de Sousa ", a masterpiece. The novel is really a creation of the nineteenth century and it began with historical romances in the style of Walter Scott by Alexandre Herculano , to whom succeeded Rebelo da Silva with A Mocidade de D.
His characters live and many of his descriptive and satiric passages have become classical.
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The Panorama under the editorship of Herculano exercised a sound and wide influence over letters, but since that time the press has become less and less literary and now treats of little save politics. It is a day of national pride similar to the "Independence Day" celebrated in other countries. He accepted an assignment to the consulate of Paris in and remained there until his death on August 16, The books he wrote in Paris are critical of Portuguese society.
One of the most successful Mexican films in history, it was also controversial because of its depiction of Catholic priesthood. Fernando Pessoa — was a Portuguese poet and prose writer. He used heteronyms , where he wrote in different styles as if he were more than one poet.
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One of his most famous works was the epic-lyric poem "Mensagem" Message. Antero de Quental studied at the University of Coimbra , and soon distinguished himself by unusual talent, as well as turbulence and eccentricity. He began to write poetry at an early age, chiefly, though not entirely, devoting himself to the sonnet. He then travelled, engaged on his return in political and socialistic agitations, and found his way through a series of disappointments to the mild pessimism, a kind of Western Buddhism, which animates his latest poetical productions.
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His melancholy was increased by a spinal disease, which after several years of retirement from the world, eventually drove him to suicide in his native island. His principal defect is monotony: his own self is his solitary theme, and he seldom attempts any other form of composition than the sonnet. On the other hand, few poets who have chiefly devoted themselves to this form have produced so large a proportion of really exquisite work. The comparatively few pieces in which be either forgets his doubts and inward conflicts, or succeeds in giving them an objective form, are among the most beautiful in any literature.
The purely introspective sonnets are less attractive, but equally finely wrought, interesting as psychological studies, and impressive from their sincerity. His mental attitude is well described by himself as the effect of Germanism on the unprepared mind of a Southerner. He had learned much, and half-learned more, which he was unable to assimilate, and his mind became a chaos of conflicting ideas, settling down into a condition of gloomy negation, save for the one conviction of the vanity of existence, which ultimately destroyed him.
A healthy participation in public affairs might have saved him, but he seemed incapable of entering upon any course that did not lead to delusion and disappointment. The great popularity acquired, notwithstanding, by poetry so metaphysical and egotistic is a testimony to the artistic instinct of the Portuguese. As a prose writer Quental displayed high talents, though he wrote little. His friend Oliveira Martins edited the Sonnets Porto, , supplying an introductory essay; and an interesting collection of studies on the poet by the leading Portuguese writers appeared in a volume entitled Anthero de Quental.
In Memoriam Oporto, The sonnets have been turned into most European languages; into English by Edgar Prestage Anthero de Quental, Sixty-four Sonnets, London, , together with a striking autobiographical letter addressed by Quental to his German translator, Dr Storck. Stridently anti-Romantic, concerned to keep humanity in its place as just one of earth's species, he did not believe that an especially harmonious world was possible, and he abhorred all attempts to escape the world, whether through mystical or poetical exaltations.
Although most of his works are lost or out of sight in private collections he was also a painter and a graphic composer of immense talent.