Skip to main content 20 Premier League Games Live. Casey Clifford. Something went wrong. Please try your request again later. Her office looks out at the lake which inspires her with its moods. When she's not writing, she's a wife, mother, sister, friend. She enjoys photography, baking, reading, and music.
She's retired from college teaching to write full time. She enjoys speaking to large and small groups about writing challenges and techniques.
She also does motivational programs. She loves creating stories about women who deal with life--whether that story is a suspense, a story about a woman dealing with a family problem, or a challenge in life. The sequel Fireweed is available and is set in Alaska. It's received excellent reviews. Her suspense, An Island No More, is currently a finalist in two readers' choice contests. Her Wise Women Fiction books include The Dessert Dames series about a group of women friends, their life challenges, their families, their careers.
These women grew up in a small Midwestern town and that small town ethic also influences their adult lives. She has currently produced the Soul String Saga, a series of 5 novellas tracing the growth of a woman from her twenties to her forties, now available in digital formats. These should be available in print in July Currently she is working on another Dessert Dames book. Are you an author? Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography.
Learn more at Author Central. The Temptations left for Atlantic Records in , but returned in and eventually left again in As of [update] , Wonder is the only artist from Motown's early period still on the label. Motown was merged with Universal Records to create the Universal Motown Records and placed under the newly created umbrella division of Universal Motown Republic Group. Motown celebrated its 50th anniversary on January 12, Motown specialized in a type of soul music it referred to with the trademark "The Motown Sound".
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Crafted with an ear towards pop appeal, the Motown Sound typically used tambourines to accent the back beat , prominent, and often melodic electric bass-guitar lines, distinctive melodic and chord structures, and a call-and-response singing style that originated in gospel music. In , Jon Landau wrote in Rolling Stone that the sound consisted of songs with simple structures but sophisticated melodies, along with a four-beat drum pattern, regular use of horns and strings and "a trebly style of mixing that relied heavily on electronic limiting and equalizing boosting the high range frequencies to give the overall product a distinctive sound, particularly effective for broadcast over AM radio".
Complex arrangements and elaborate, melismatic vocal riffs were avoided. The Motown production process has been described as factory-like.
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The Hitsville studios remained open and active 22 hours a day, and artists would often go on tour for weeks, come back to Detroit to record as many songs as possible, and then promptly go on tour again. Berry Gordy held quality control meetings every Friday morning, and used veto power to ensure that only the very best material and performances would be released. The test was that every new release needed to fit into a sequence of the top five selling pop singles of the week.
Several tracks that later became critical and commercial favorites were initially rejected by Gordy; the two most notable being the Marvin Gaye songs " I Heard It Through the Grapevine " and " What's Going On ". Many of Motown's best-known songs, including all the early hits for the Supremes , were written by the songwriting trio of Holland—Dozier—Holland Lamont Dozier and brothers Brian and Eddie Holland.
The style created by the Motown musicians was a major influence on several non-Motown artists of the mids, such as Dusty Springfield and the Foundations. In the United Kingdom, the Motown Sound became the basis of the northern soul movement. Smokey Robinson said the Motown Sound had little to do with Detroit:. People would listen to it, and they'd say, 'Aha, they use more bass. Or they use more drums. When we were first successful with it, people were coming from Germany, France, Italy, Mobile, Alabama. From New York, Chicago, California.
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From everywhere. Just to record in Detroit. They figured it was in the air, that if they came to Detroit and recorded on the freeway, they'd get the Motown sound. Listen, the Motown sound to me is not an audible sound. It's spiritual, and it comes from the people that make it happen. What other people didn't realize is that we just had one studio there, but we recorded in Chicago , Nashville , New York, L. And we still got the sound.
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In addition to the songwriting process of the writers and producers, one of the major factors in the widespread appeal of Motown's music was Gordy's practice of using a highly-select and tight-knit group of studio musicians, collectively known as the Funk Brothers , to record the instrumental or "band" tracks of a majority of Motown recordings.
The band's career and work is chronicled in the documentary film Standing in the Shadows of Motown , which publicised the fact that these musicians "played on more number-one records than The Beatles, Elvis, The Rolling Stones, and The Beach Boys combined. Much of the Motown Sound came from the use of overdubbed and duplicated instrumentation.
Motown songs regularly featured two drummers instead of one either overdubbed or in unison , as well as three or four guitar lines. Artist development was a major part of Motown's operations instituted by Berry Gordy. The acts on the Motown label were fastidiously groomed, dressed and choreographed for live performances.
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Motown artists were advised that their breakthrough into the white popular music market made them ambassadors for other African-American artists seeking broad market acceptance, and that they should think, act, walk and talk like royalty, so as to alter the less-than-dignified image commonly held of black musicians by white Americans in that era. Walker and Marvin Gaye were exempt from artist-development classes. Many of the young artists participated in an annual package tour called the " Motortown Revue ", which was popular, first, on the " Chitlin' Circuit ", and, later, around the world.
The tours gave the younger artists a chance to hone their performance and social skills and learn from the more experienced artists. In order to avoid accusations of payola should DJs play too many records from the original Tamla label, Gordy formed Motown Records as a second label in The two labels featured the same writers, producers and artists. Many more subsidiary labels were established later under the umbrella of the Motown parent company, including Gordy Records, Soul Records and VIP Records; in reality the Motown Record Corporation controlled all of these labels.
Most of the distinctions between Motown labels were largely arbitrary, with the same writers, producers and musicians working on all the major subsidiaries, and artists were often shuffled between labels for internal marketing reasons. All of these records are usually considered to be "Motown" records, regardless of whether they actually appeared on the Motown Records label itself.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Motown disambiguation. For the city nicknamed Motown, see Detroit. Record label originally from Detroit, Michigan. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Universal Motown Records. Main article: The Funk Brothers. LA Times. February 3, Retrieved October 30, Retrieved October 15, Motown Records.
This is Detroit, - 1 ed. Detroit, Mich. August 10, Retrieved December 12, Archived from the original on January 17, Universal Music. August 15, Motown Museum. August 24, Virgin Books. Random House.
Retrieved March 9, — via Google Books. Home - De Passe Jones Entertainment. Retrieved March 9, Huffington Post. MTV News. Retrieved October 8, May Archived from the original on May 8, Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 11, The Washington Times. News World Communications. Retrieved September 16, — via Questia Online Library. New York: Da Capo Press.